Environmental implications of using or saving electricity¹

  Factor 1
(total energy
  Factor 2
(total energy
  If electricity consumption is measured in:
  kWh MWh GWh TWh
Coal use 0.56   0.54   kilogram ton thousand tons (kt) million tons
Water use4 1.46   1.40   litre kilolitre megalitre thousand megalitres
Ash produced 160.48   153.87   gram kilogram ton thousand tons (kt)
Particulate emissions 0.36   0.35   gram kilogram ton thousand tons (kt)
CO2 emissions5 1.07   1.03   kilogram ton thousand tons (kt) million tons
SOx emissions5 9.06   8.69   gram kilogram ton thousand tons (kt)
NOx emissions6 4.38   4.20   gram kilogram ton thousand tons (kt)

Use of table: Multiply electricity consumption or saving by the relevant factor to determine the environmental implication.
Example 1 (using factor 1): Example 3 (using factor 2):
Used 90MWh of electricity Used 90MWh of electricity
Water consumption: 90 x 1.46 = 131.4 Water consumption: 90 x 1.40 = 126
Therefore 131.4 kilolitres of water used Therefore 126 kilolitres of water used
Example 2 (using factor 1): Example 4 (using factor 2):
Used 90MWh of electricity Used 90MWh of electricity
CO2 emissions 90 x 1.07 = 96.3 CO2 emissions 90 x 1.03 = 92.7
Therefore 96.3 tons emitted Therefore 92.7 tons emitted

1. Figures represent the 12-month period from 1 April 2013 to 31 March 2014.
2. Factor 1 figures are calculated based on total electricity sold by Eskom (based on total available to Eskom to distribute (including what Eskom
purchases) less technical electricity losses due to transmission and distribution of electricity across the country less electricity theft less internal
use less wheeling). That is for CO2: 233.3Mt / 217 903GWh) = 1.07 tons per MWh.
3. Factor 2 figures are calculated based on total electricity generated by Eskom (coal, nuclear, pumped storage, wind, hydro and gas turbines)
excluding the total consumed by Eskom. That is for CO2: 233.3 Mt / (231 129GWh – 3862GWh) = 1.02 tons per MWh.
4. Volume of water used at all Eskom power stations.
5. Calculated figures based on coal characteristics and power station design parameters. Sulphur-dioxide and carbon-dioxide emissions are
based on coal analysis and using coal burnt tonnages. Figures include coal-fired and gas turbine power stations, as well as oil consumed
during power station start-ups and, for carbon-dioxide emissions, the underground coal gasification pilot plant.
6. NOx reported as NO2 is calculated using average station-specific emission factors, which have been measured intermittently between 1982 and
2006, and tonnages of coal burnt.
7. Further information can also be obtained through the Eskom environmental helpline. Contact details are available in appendix F of the
integrated report on the inside back cover.
8. For CDM related Eskom grid emission factor information please go to the following link: http://www.eskom.co.za/OurCompany/
or via the Eskom website>Our Company>Sustainable Development>CDM